Pre-Intermediate

 
 
 

  1. Some- Any- No- Every- 1
  2. Some- Any- No- Every- 2

  3. A. Count and Uncount Nouns

  4. Singular count nouns, There Was
  5. Plural count nouns, There Were
  6. Uncount nouns, There was

  7. B. Comparison

  8. Adjectives, Comparatives, Superlatives
  9. Superlatives, one
  10. Superlatives, two
  11. Superlatives, three
  12. Superlatives, four
  13. Comparatives, one
  14. Comparatives, two
  15. Comparatives, three
  16. As big as
  17. Less than, The Least, one
  18. Less Than, The Least, two
  19. C. Modal Auxiliary Verbs and Modal-like Verbs

  20. Modal Auxiliary Verbs, Introduction
  21. Can, 1 (ability, be able to)
  22. Can, 2 (ability, be able to)
  23. Can, 3 (ability, be able to)
  24. Can, 4 (ability, be able to)
  25. Can, 5: Business Skills
  26. Can, 6: Business Skills
  27. Can, 6: Business Skills
  28. May Mustn’t; Permission Prohibition 1
  29. May Mustn’t; Permission Prohibition 2
  30. May Mustn’t; Permission Prohibition 3
  31. Must, Have to (Strong Obligation) 1
  32. Must, Have to (Strong Obligation) 2
  33. Must, Have to (Strong Obligation) 3
  34. Must, Have to (Strong Obligation) 4
  35. Should I (Mild Obligation, Advice)
  36. Should II
  37. Should III
  38. Be Used to (Be Accustomed to)
  39. Used to, one (Past Habits, Activities)
  40. Used to, two (Past Habits, Activities)
  41. Used to, 3 (Past Habits, Activities)
  42. D. Future Time

  43. Future Time
  44. Will for Predictions, I
  45. Will for Predictions, II
  46. Will for Predictions, III
  47. Predictions for the Future, 1
  48. Predictions for the Future, 2
  49. Predictions for the Future, 3
  50. Predictions for the Future, 4
  51. Going to for Future Plans, one
  52. Going to for Future Plans, two
  53. E. Prepositions

  54. Prepositions of Time, I
  55. Prepositions of Time, II
  56. Prepositions, other uses, I
  57. Prepositions, other uses, II

  58. F. Reading Texts

  59. A Diplomat’s Daughter
  60. The Village
  61. Crazy English

 

 

*     *     *     *     *     *     *     *

 
 
 

Grammar Structures

 

Grammar is the system of how a language functions. This allows people to communicate clearly and effectively.

Grammar consists of numerous components: words, parts of speech, pronunciation, forms, sentence structures and usage.

Parts of Speech

We can categorize words into different parts of speech. The eight recognized classes are

• nouns
• pronouns
• verbs
• adjectives
• adverbs
• prepositions
• conjunctions
• interjections

Grammatical Structure

Grammatical structure meanwhile provides the framework to build meaningful sentences and other expressions. Its main features are

(1) syntax
(2) inflection
(3) function words

Syntax

Syntax refers to the word order in a sentence. In English, the subject generally comes first, followed by the verb. An object may come after the verb.

Subject Verb (Object)

In the sentence, “I walk,” ‘I’ is the subject, and ‘walk’ is the verb. In “The girl kicked the ball,” ‘The girl’ is the subject, ‘kicked’ is the verb, and ‘the ball’ is the object (the girl is the doer of the action; the ball is the receiver).

The arrangement “The girl the ball kicked” is nonsensical in English, though it may be correct in other languages.

Modification

Single words that modify nouns usually come before it, as in “A red bird flew by”, “The watch dog barked”, and “He watered the house plants.”

However phrases that modify nouns generally come after it: “I saw two people carrying backpacks.”

Inflection

In inflection, we change the meaning or function of words by varying their form.

English nouns, for example, have two inflections, the plural (house, houses; mouse, mice); and the possessive (the bird; the bird’s nest).

Inflection on pronouns indicates their case (We called them; they wrote to us).

Inflection on Verbs

With verbs, inflection shows tense and modification forms (talk, talked, talked, talking; go, went, gone, going), along with the third person, singular in the present tense (I eat pears; he eats radishes).

Base adjectives and adverbs become comparatives and superlatives (fast, faster, the fastest).

Function Words

Function words specify meanings and show relationships.

The sentence “The monkey climbed up the tree,” includes the preposition up. “Jackie watched TV, but Rosie went out,” has the conjunction but .

Auxiliary verbs modify the main verb in a sentence: “I will exercise…tomorrow”, “You must sign your name here”.

*     *     *     *     *     *     *     *

1. Does your native language emphasise syntax, inflection or both equally?
2. How does your language compare with English in terms of inflection? Which has more?
3. How similar is your language to English?
4. Which is easier or more difficult, English or other languages you are familiar with?
5. What is the most difficult part of (learning) English?
6. Do you find grammar fun? Is grammar fun for you?
7. Have your instructors used games or other activities to teach grammar? Do you still remember them?

 

Share Button

Email this page

 

Comments

comments