1. Parts of Speech
  2. A. Count and Uncount Nouns

  3. Count and Uncount Nouns
  4. Some and Any
  5. Count Nouns, Singular; There is
  6. Count Nouns, Plural; There are
  7. Uncount nouns; There is
  8. B. Adverbs of Frequency

  9. Adverbs of Frequency (+), 1
  10. Adverbs of Frequency (+), 2
  11. Adverbs of Frequency (+), 3
  12. Adverbs of Frequency, (—)
  13. Adverbs of frequency in Questions
  14. C. Be as a Linking Verb: Was, Were

  15. Was: I, She, He, It
  16. Was: Questions
  17. Were: You, We, They
  18. Were: Questions
  19. D. Past Simple

  20. Past Simple Sentences, one
  21. Past Simple Sentences, two
  22. Past Simple Sentences, three
  23. Questions
  24. E. Continuous Tense

  25. Present Continuous, one
  26. Present Continuous, two
  27. Present Continuous, three
  28. Present Continuous, four
  29. Past Continuous
  30. F. Miscellaneous

  31. Subject Questions (Who)
  32. Subject Questions (What)
  33. And, But, Or, 1
  34. And, But, Or, 2
  35. And, But, Or, 3
  36. Imperatives
  37. Prepositions of Location
  38. Prepositions of Position
  39. Prepositions of Direction
  40. G. Reading Texts

  41. Work and Travel
  42. Summer Holiday
  43. The Iowa Farm Boy
  44. My Work Experience


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Learning Another Language


Virtually everyone picks up their first language naturally, without much conscious effort. Young children start by listening to older people and copying them.

Whatever is on Their Minds

By the age of 4 or 5, children will have learned basic speech patterns well enough to express most of their needs, wants and thoughts. And they frequently blare out whatever’s on their minds.


At school, learning becomes more conscious and deliberate. Children learn to speak and write more clearly, about more complex things.

The Window of Opportunity

The ease of learning a second language depends on the learner’s age. Before the onset of puberty, children pick up languages simply by listening and imitating others.

Vocal Chords Become Set

After the onset of puberty however, people’s vocal chords and language patterns become set. Learning a language then becomes easy insofar as it is related to one’s native tongue, and difficult insofar as it is distant.

Methods of Study

The two main methods for older students to learn foreign languages are the grammar method, and the spoken language method.

In the spoken language method , students try to duplicate the way young children learn their native language.

They listen to their teacher and recordings, then mimic the various sounds, intonation, words, sentences, and expressions.

With the grammar method, students learn general rules of grammar and apply them in different contexts.

The best approach is probably a combination of both.

“Correct” English

Students also need to also know what constitutes “good” and “bad” English. Unlike science, however, this can be subjective and arbitrary.

The “proper” use of a language is largely determined by the educated people of a country. This group includes government and business leaders, teachers and professors, and journalists and authors.

Dictionaries, Course Books

Dictionaries, course books, grammar books, CDs, videos, and instructors serve as useful guides and references as to the appropriate use of English.


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