Elementary Grammar

 
 
 


1. Parts of Speech

A. Count and Uncount Nouns

2. Count and Uncount Nouns
3. Some and Any
4. Count Nouns, Singular; There is
5. Count Nouns, Plural; There are
6. Uncount nouns; There is

B. Adverbs of Frequency

7. Adverbs of Frequency, (+) Sentences
8. Adverbs of Frequency, (—) Sentences
9. Adverbs of frequency in Questions

C. Be as a Linking Verb: Was, Were

10. Was: I, She, He, It
11. Was: Questions
12. Were: You, We, They
13. Were: Questions

D. Past Simple


14. Past Simple Sentences, one
15. Past Simple Sentences, two
16. Past Simple Sentences, three
17. Questions

E. Continuous Tense


18. Present Continuous, one
19. Present Continuous, two
20. Present Continuous, three
21. Present Continuous, four
22. Past Continuous

F. Miscellaneous


23. Subject Questions (Who)
24. Subject Questions (What)
25. And, But, Or, 1
26. And, But, Or, 2

27. Imperatives
28. Prepositions of Location
29. Prepositions of Position
30. Prepositions of Direction

 
 

G. Reading Texts


31. Work and Travel

A group of high school students spend part of their summer traveling and working abroad.


32. Summer Holiday

Some teenagers go abroad for their summer holiday.

33. The Iowa Farm Boy

A story about a farm boy from Iowa.

34. My Work Experience

Cabot talks about his work experience.
 

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Learning Another Language

 

Virtually everyone picks up their first language naturally, without much conscious effort. Young children start by listening to older people and copying them.

Whatever is on Their Minds

By the age of 4 or 5, children will have learned basic speech patterns well enough to express most of their needs, wants and thoughts. And they frequently blare out whatever’s on their minds.

School

At school, learning becomes more conscious and deliberate. Children learn to speak and write more clearly, about more complex things.

The Window of Opportunity

The ease of learning a second language depends on the learner’s age. Before the onset of puberty, children pick up languages simply by listening and imitating others.

Vocal Chords Become Set

After the onset of puberty however, people’s vocal chords and language patterns become set. Learning a language then becomes easy insofar as it is related to one’s native tongue, and difficult insofar as it is distant.

Methods of Study

The two main methods for older students to learn foreign languages are the grammar method, and the spoken language method.

In the spoken language method , students try to duplicate the way young children learn their native language.

They listen to their teacher and recordings, then mimic the various sounds, intonation, words, sentences, and expressions.

With the grammar method, students learn general rules of grammar and apply them in different contexts.

The best approach is probably a combination of both.

“Correct” English

Students also need to also know what constitutes “good” and “bad” English. Unlike science, however, this can be subjective and arbitrary.

The “proper” use of a language is largely determined by the educated people of a country. This group includes government and business leaders, teachers and professors, and journalists and authors.

Dictionaries, Course Books

Dictionaries, course books, grammar books, CDs, videos, and instructors serve as useful guides and references as to the appropriate use of English.

 
 
 
 

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