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Here are some pictures. Answer the following questions for each.

1. What is this? This is a . . . . .

2. Where is this place? This is a . . . . .

3. Describe the weather. What season is this? What month is it?

4. Who is this person? He is . . . . . She is a . . . . . They are . . . . .

5. What is she doing? What’s he doing? What are they doing? He is . . . . . .

6. How does he feel? He is . . . . . . .

7. What will happen next? They will . . . . .


company training

Company Training



size conduct (3) profitability
ability in common competence
expect apply (2) conduct a study
hire drain (2) competitive
proud marginal go down the drawn
invest executive bottom line
gross scale (4) according to
source generate Fortune 500 Company
rule (2) resolve (2) sustainable
field (2) dominate effectiveness
rate (2) perform (2) on a scale of one to ten
revenue comparison


Company Profitability

Do you know the real secret of high profitability in companies of every size?

Napoleon Hill conducted a 22-year study of the 500 richest people in America.

He made three discoveries.

The Three Discoveries

First, he found that each of these top people had certain skills and qualities and abilities in common.

Second, he found that none of them started off with these skills.

And third, he found that they were all learnable skills. He found that top performers are made, and not born.

The Secret is Training

The rule is you cannot expect people to perform at high levels unless they have been thoroughly trained to perform at those levels — just like an athlete.

The highest profit companies in America spend a large amount of money on training.

The companies that are marginal spend little or nothing on training.

Many executives running companies that were having serious problems told me, sometimes quite proudly, “We don’t train our people; we just hire good people, and expect them to do a good job.”

As they say this, their businesses were going down the drain.

Xerox, IBM, Motorola

Some years ago, Xerox conducted a study on their training program. They found that they were getting $22 back to the bottom line for every dollar they invested in training their people, especially their salespeople.

IBM found that they were getting $26 back to the bottom line for every dollar they invested in their people.

And Motorola, when it was in the top of its game, found that they were getting $33 back for every dollar they invested in their people in helping them become better at their jobs.


Resolve today to turn your company into a learning organization.

The top 20% of companies in America, according to the American Society for Training and Development, spend 3% of more of their gross revenues on training the people who are expected to generate and process these revenues.

How do this number compare with the amount you spend in your company?

According to Sales and Marketing Management Magazine, the top 20% of companies in profitability, invest an average of $6,000 per year, per person in sales training, rewarding and celebrating their sales people.

Surprisingly, 70% of American companies of all sizes do no sales training at all. They may do a little product training, but they don’t do sales training.


Sometimes executives say, “What if we train them, and then they leave?”

But the right question to ask is, “What if we don’t train them, and then they stay?

The president of a Fortune 500 company said recently, “Our only source of sustainable competitive advantage is our ability to learn and apply new ideas faster than our competition.”


One of the ways you can lead your field and dominate your market is to have the best and the best trained people in your business.

Now here’s a question for you: on a scale of one to ten, how much do you rate the quality of your people, their competence and effectiveness overall in comparison with your best competitors.

And what would you do to start bringing up your score?

*     *     *     *     *     *     *


1. The main idea of this text is the secret of successful companies and individuals. True or false?

2. What are the three features that the richest people have in common?

3. Is this secret just a theory or opinion?

4. According to the writer, what is the difference between successful and failing companies?
5. Can a company simply hire the best people and remain competitive?

6. What examples did he give? What companies did he mention?

7. Most US companies train their staff extensively. Is this right or wrong? What figures (numbers) were given?

8. Are most executives reluctant to invest in training their employees? Why are they reluctant?


A. Which is cheaper or more cost effective, spending lots of money on training or saving money by not training company staff?

B. Does your company or organization train their employees? What are some examples of company training?

C. Our company needs to provide more training. What do you think? What areas, departments or jobs need more training?

D. What areas do you need more knowledge, skill or training on?

E. What will happen in the future?


economics one

Economics, I

Economics is the social science concerned with the analysis of commercial activities and with how goods and services are produced.

The field of economics studies how the things people need and want are made and brought to them. It also studies how people and nations choose the things they buy from among the many things they want.

*     *     *     *     *     *     *

Economic Systems

1. What do you think is the “best” economic system: capitalism (free enterprise, market economy), communism (controlled economy), socialism, mixed economies, crony capitalism, Keynesian, Monetarist policies? Say why and give examples.

2. Describe the current economic system of your country. Do you think reforms are necessary? If yes, what are they?

3. Has the economic system of your country changed over history?

4. Are monopolies, trusts, and cartels good or bad? Why or why not? How can they be “broken”?


5. Public utilities such as electric power, water, gas, sewage and telephone services should be privatized or open to competition. Yes or no?

6. Should public services such as law enforcement, fire protection, national defence, health care, road and bridges and education be privatized or outsourced?

7. What role, if any, should the government have in the nation’s economy?

8. The less involved the government is in the economy, the better. Do you agree?

9. There is too much bureaucracy, red tape, and taxes. What do you think?

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