Intermediate Grammar


    A. Gerunds and Infinitives

    1. Gerunds, one
    2. Gerunds, two
    3. Infinitives
    4. Participles as Adjectives, I
    5. Participles as Adjectives, II
    6. Participles as Adjectives, III
    7. Likes and Dislikes, 1
    8. Likes and Dislikes, 2
    9. Likes and Dislikes, 3
    10. Likes and Dislikes, 4
    11. Likes and Dislikes, 5
    12. Likes and Dislikes, 6
    13. Going to, Intend to, Plan to

    B. Perfect Tenses

    14. Present Perfect Simple, one
    15. Present Perfect Simple, two
    16. Present Perfect Simple, three
    17. Present Perfect Simple, four
    18. Present Perfect Continuous
    19. Past Perfect
    20. Future Perfect

    C. Modal Auxiliary Verbs II

    21. Must Could May (Possibility)
    22. Might Have 1 (Past Possibility)
    23. Could, Must, Might Have, 2
    24. Could, Must, Might Have, 3
    25. Should have (Hypothetical Past)

    D. Conditionals

    26. Zero Conditional
    27. First Conditional, one
    28. First Conditional, two
    29. First Conditional, three
    30. Second Conditional, 1
    31. Second Conditional, 2
    32. Second Conditional, 3
    33. Second Conditional, 4
    34. Third Conditional
    35. Wishes, one
    36. Wishes, two
    37. Wishes, three

    E. Clauses

    38. Subordinate Clauses I
    39. Subordinate Clauses II
    40. Complete the Sentences, I
    41. Complete the Sentences, II
    42. Complete the Sentences, III

    F. Linking Words, Adverbs

    43. Afterward, Consequently
    44. However, Meanwhile

    G. Relative Clauses

    45. Who, 1
    46. Who, 2
    47. Who, 3
    48. Where, one
    49. Where, two
    50. Where, three
    51. Where, four
    52. Where, five
    53. Which, one
    54. Which, two
    55. Which, three
    56. Which, four
    57. Which, five

    F. Participle Clauses

    G. Other

    Quotes or Reported Speech
    Question Tags

    G. Reading Text

    Formal, Colloquial, Vernacular
    Body Language
    The English Cup
    The Conversation


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Grammatical Relationships

Grammatical relationships can be classified into three components:

(1) the subject-verb-complement relationship
(2) coordination
(3) subordination

Subject Verb Compliment Relationship

The subject-verb-complement (or actor-action-goal) relationship, is the basic grammatical relationship. It says that somebody or something does something, or is somebody or something.

We show this relationship mainly by word order, as in “A bee stung me,” and, “Lew is a comedian.”


Coordination expresses two or more ideas in parallel, or equal, form. In the sentence “She read a book and wrote a letter,” the verbs ‘read’ and ‘wrote’ are parallel.

We use function words such as and, but, and or, to indicate coordination: “You can order hamburger, or you can order hotdog.”


Subordination connects two clauses: a dominant or independent clause (the actor-action-goal part); and a subordinate or dependant clause.

The dominant clause forms the core of a sentence. The subordinate part modifies or changes the meaning of the dominant part.

Function Words

In general, subordinate clauses have function words. These include before, after, when, although, though, because, and if.

In “After Mr. McKenna retired, Sally took over his position,” the clause ‘Sally took over his position’ forms the actor-action-goal core of the sentence.

The phrase ‘after Mr. McKenna retired’ is subordination—it modifies the main action by saying when it happened.


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