Intermediate Grammar


    A. Gerunds and Infinitives

    1. Gerunds, one
    2. Gerunds, two
    3. Infinitives
    4. Participles as Adjectives, I
    5. Participles as Adjectives, II
    6. Participles as Adjectives, III
    7. Likes and Dislikes, 1
    8. Likes and Dislikes, 2
    9. Likes and Dislikes, 3
    10. Likes and Dislikes, 4
    11. Likes and Dislikes, 5
    12. Likes and Dislikes, 6
    13. Going to, Intend to, Plan to

    B. Perfect Tenses

    14. Present Perfect Simple, one
    15. Present Perfect Simple, two
    16. Present Perfect Simple, three
    17. Present Perfect Simple, four
    18. Present Perfect Continuous
    19. Past Perfect
    20. Future Perfect

    C. Modal Auxiliary Verbs II

    21. Must Could May (Possibility)
    22. Might Have 1 (Past Possibility)
    23. Could, Must, Might Have, 2
    24. Could, Must, Might Have, 3
    25. Should have (Hypothetical Past)

    D. Conditionals

    26. Zero Conditional, 1
    27. Zero Conditional, 2
    28. First Conditional, one
    29. First Conditional, two
    30. First Conditional, three
    31. Second Conditional, 1
    32. Second Conditional, 2
    33. Second Conditional, 3
    34. Second Conditional, 4
    35. Third Conditional
    36. Wishes, one
    37. Wishes, two
    38. Wishes, three

    E. Clauses

    39. Subordinate Clauses I
    40. Subordinate Clauses II
    41. Complete the Sentences, I
    42. Complete the Sentences, II
    43. Complete the Sentences, III

    F. Linking Words, Adverbs

    44. Afterward, Consequently
    45. However, Meanwhile

    G. Relative Clauses

    46. Who, 1
    47. Who, 2
    48. Who, 3
    49. Where, one
    50. Where, two
    51. Where, three
    52. Where, four
    53. Where, five
    54. Which, one
    55. Which, two
    56. Which, three
    57. Which, four
    58. Which, five

    F. Participle Clauses

    G. Other

    Quotes or Reported Speech
    Question Tags

    G. Reading Text

    Formal, Colloquial, Vernacular
    Body Language
    The English Cup
    The Conversation


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Grammatical Relationships

Grammatical relationships can be classified into three components:

(1) the subject-verb-complement relationship
(2) coordination
(3) subordination

Subject Verb Compliment Relationship

The subject-verb-complement (or actor-action-goal) relationship, is the basic grammatical relationship. It says that somebody or something does something, or is somebody or something.

We show this relationship mainly by word order, as in “A bee stung me,” and, “Lew is a comedian.”


Coordination expresses two or more ideas in parallel, or equal, form. In the sentence “She read a book and wrote a letter,” the verbs ‘read’ and ‘wrote’ are parallel.

We use function words such as and, but, and or, to indicate coordination: “You can order hamburger, or you can order hotdog.”


Subordination connects two clauses: a dominant or independent clause (the actor-action-goal part); and a subordinate or dependant clause.

The dominant clause forms the core of a sentence. The subordinate part modifies or changes the meaning of the dominant part.

Function Words

In general, subordinate clauses have function words. These include before, after, when, although, though, because, and if.

In “After Mr. McKenna retired, Sally took over his position,” the clause ‘Sally took over his position’ forms the actor-action-goal core of the sentence.

The phrase ‘after Mr. McKenna retired’ is subordination—it modifies the main action by saying when it happened.


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