Intermediate Grammar


    A. Gerunds and Infinitives

  1. Gerunds, one
  2. Gerunds, two
  3. Infinitives
  4. Participles as Adjectives, I
  5. Participles as Adjectives, II
  6. Participles as Adjectives, III
  7. Likes and Dislikes, 1
  8. Likes and Dislikes, 2
  9. Likes and Dislikes, 3
  10. Likes and Dislikes, 4
  11. Likes and Dislikes, 5
  12. Likes and Dislikes, 6
  13. Going to, Intend to, Plan to
  14. B. Perfect Tenses

  15. Present Perfect Simple, one
  16. Present Perfect Simple, two
  17. Present Perfect Simple, three
  18. Present Perfect Simple, four
  19. Present Perfect Continuous
  20. Past Perfect
  21. Future Perfect
  22. C. Modal Auxiliary Verbs II

  23. Must Could May (Possibility)
  24. Might Have 1 (Past Possibility)
  25. Could, Must, Might Have, 2
  26. Could, Must, Might Have, 3
  27. Should have (Hypothetical Past)
  28. D. Conditionals

  29. Zero Conditional, 1
  30. Zero Conditional, 2
  31. First Conditional, one
  32. First Conditional, two
  33. First Conditional, three
  34. Second Conditional, 1
  35. Second Conditional, 2
  36. Second Conditional, 3
  37. Second Conditional, 4
  38. Third Conditional
  39. Wishes, one
  40. Wishes, two
  41. Wishes, three

  42. E. Clauses

  43. Subordinate Clauses I
  44. Subordinate Clauses II
  45. Complete the Sentences, I
  46. Complete the Sentences, II
  47. Complete the Sentences, III
  48. F. Linking Words, Adverbs

  49. Afterward, Consequently
  50. However, Meanwhile
  51. G. Relative Clauses

  52. Who, 1
  53. Who, 2
  54. Who, 3

  56. Where, one
  57. Where, two
  58. Where, three
  59. Where, four
  60. Where, five

  62. Which, one
  63. Which, two
  64. Which, three
  65. Which, four
  66. Which, five
  67. H. Participle Clauses

    I. Other

  68. Passives
  69. Quotes or Reported Speech
  70. Question Tags
  71. J. Reading Text

  72. Formal, Colloquial, Vernacular
  73. Body Language
  74. The English Cup
  75. The Conversation


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Grammatical Relationships

Grammatical relationships can be classified into three components:

(1) the subject-verb-complement relationship
(2) coordination
(3) subordination

Subject Verb Compliment Relationship

The subject-verb-complement (or actor-action-goal) relationship, is the basic grammatical relationship. It says that somebody or something does something, or is somebody or something.

We show this relationship mainly by word order, as in “A bee stung me,” and, “Lew is a comedian.”


Coordination expresses two or more ideas in parallel, or equal, form. In the sentence “She read a book and wrote a letter,” the verbs ‘read’ and ‘wrote’ are parallel.

We use function words such as and, but, and or, to indicate coordination: “You can order hamburger, or you can order hotdog.”


Subordination connects two clauses: a dominant or independent clause (the actor-action-goal part); and a subordinate or dependent clause.

The dominant clause forms the core of a sentence. The subordinate part modifies or changes the meaning of the dominant part.

Function Words

In general, subordinate clauses have function words. These include before, after, when, although, though, because, and if.

In “After Mr. McKenna retired, Sally took over his position,” the clause ‘Sally took over his position’ forms the actor-action-goal core of the sentence.

The phrase ‘after Mr. McKenna retired’ is subordination—it modifies the main action by saying when it happened.


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