war two

War, part two


In modern times, wars have been fought between nations or groups of nations. Armies and navies once were almost the only factors in deciding the outcome of wars. Today, civilians must join in the war effort if it is to succeed.

Wars have always caused great suffering and hardship. Most people hate war, yet for hundreds of years war has been going on somewhere in the world nearly all the time. Earthquakes and floods happen to people, but people make war themselves.

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Pacifism and Peace

20. Are there pacifist religious groups? Describe them.

21. Are certain religious groups pacifist? Which ones? How has this affected their history? What would happen if everyone converted to a pacifist religion?

22. How does your society look upon conscientious objectors (pacifists)?

23. Which countries are peaceful or neutral? Why is that? Have they always been that way?

24. People and governments are more peaceful and less war-like now than they were in the past. True or false?


25. Civil wars and revolutions are far more common than conventional, international wars. True or false?

26. America largely accepted the deaths of 620,000 men in the U.S. Civil War (1861— 1865), out of a total population of about 33 m, and 400,000 men during World War Two (1941—1945), US pop 132 m.

27. In the early 2000s, public opinion in the US, pop. 300 million, says that the loss of 5,600 men in Iraq and Afghanistan is unacceptable. Why the inverse in numbers and opinion?

28. International wars have become largely obsolete. In the future there will be most revolutions, guerrilla warfare, insurgency and terrorism.

29. Should world powers become militarily involved in other countries’ domestic affairs if there is widespread oppression, killing and torture, and the victims plead for armed intervention?

30. What should citizens of a country (and outsiders) do if its government becomes corrupt, oppressive, abusive, dictatorial and uses the secret police?

Geopolitics and History

31. What is the likelihood that your country will be involved in an armed conflict? Who are some potential adversaries (enemies)? Why?

32. Even if all politicians and government leaders were peaceful, would there still be warfare?

33. What countries have been your historic enemies?

34. Have you seen documentaries of wars between nations involving guns, tanks, aircraft, and commentators providing all sorts of complicated political reasoning and analysis regarding the conflict?

35. Later you read old history texts about how the same nations, with different names, had fought each other in ancient times with swords and chariots?

36. Have wars changed governments? Why? For example.

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