-ed pronunciation in regular verbs

Pronunciation of -ed (id)



The Past Simple and Past Participle

With regular verbs, the past simple (verb-1) and past participle (verb-2) forms of the base form end in ed.


   Past Simple Verb = Base Verb + d/ed/ied
Verb-2 = (Verb-1)-d/-ed/-ied


Base Verb
Past Simple
Past Participle
ed Pronunciation
play played played /d/
work worked worked /t/
want wanted wanted /id/


Note: past participles are also used as adjectives.


Last Saturday, I watched an old movie.
Sarah’s cousin has studied Greek for two years.
They emailed everyone on the list.

Our country doesn’t have enough skilled workers.
The dried bananas taste sweet.
Most imported shoes come from Turkey and China.

Pronunciation of -Ed

However the -ed ending has three different pronunciations depending on the verb:
/d/, /id/, and /t/

In this lesson, we look at the /id/ sound ending.


aided arrested celebrated
chatted cheated collected
cared assisted attracted
avoided attended contacted






 Answer the following. Say why, and give examples.

1. In the past, churches and charities aided the poor. Nowadays, the government aids the poor. Which is better?

Charles Mathews attended Harvard Medical School. Then he aided the poor in Africa. Did Dr. Mathews receive a big salary for doing this?

2. Clifford robbed a store. What happened to him? Have you ever seen the police arrest someone?

3. The nurse assisted the elderly patient. What did she do? Is there a big demand for care givers?

4. Jane attended university, Philip attended a vocational-technical college, while Wayne didn’t attend anything after he graduated from high school. What happened to each of them?

5. Taylor Swift and Ronan Keating had a concert last Saturday. What happened?

The department store attracted many people. How did they do that?

6. The tourists avoided Harlesden and Brixton in London. They also avoided Bronx and Brooklyn in New York City, and South-Central in Los Angeles).

Why did they avoid these areas? Are there areas in your city that tourist should avoid?




7. A scanning machine corrected and scored the students tests. Why was a scanner used? Which is better in correcting exams, a scanner or a human?

8. Colombia won the World Cup Championship! What did the people do?

9. Roger chatted with some people on ICQ. Who were they? What did they chat about?

10. Darrel and his friends cheated on the exam. Why did they cheat? What will happen to them?

11. My great-grandfather collected rocks, stamps and coins. True or false? What do you or your friend collect?

12. Philip contacted his labtop company and his bank. Why did he do that? He contacted his smartphone company because . . . .


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