Ancient Rome, one




annual land (2) evolution (2)
adapt lifespan lead/led/led
river survival come/came/come
empire rule (2) grow/grew/grown
gulf display transformation
enable prowess know/knew/known
span shape (2) civilization
piece divide (2) dominate
regal republic period (3)
mile imperial governance
eternal tertiary succession
stretch found (2) according to
growth adopt (2) say/said/said
legend primary secondary
consul ancient representative
peace follow (2) general (2)
rise conquer characterize
leader issue (3) peninsula
era dictator major (2)
scholar evident cruel/crueler/cruelest
pride twin (2) dominate
ethos military believe (2)
vital still (2) notorious
steady populous neighbor
entire construct expansion
ability emperor domination
conflict increase as far away as
annex scale (3) necessitate
public aqueduct eventually
access improve advancement
pave monarch pave the way
fame facilitate build/built/built
diverse alphabet throughout
enable class (2) transmission
aspect ancestor official (2)alphabet
evolve advocate movement
key (2) spectacle transition
combat influence architecture
acquire apparent upper class
imitate sculpture commission
column structure implement
diverse convert in particular
aspect originate resonate (2)
spread gladiator encourage
decline lifespan millennium
factor massive corruption
crisis shift (2) lead/led/led
decay invasion break down
threat state (3) from within
rival focus (2) incorporate






The story of Ancient Rome is a story of evolution, of how a civilization’s ability to adapt and dominate can lead to its survival for over 1,000 years.

Rome began as a small village on central Italy’s Tiber River. In the coming centuries, it grew into an empire that stretched from the north Atlantic all the way to the Persian Gulf.

During this transformation, Rome displayed a political, military, and cultural prowess that enabled it to become a super power and helped shape what would become known as Western Civilization.

The lifespan of Ancient Rome can be divided into three major periods: the Regal, the Republican, and the Imperial.

.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

During the Regal Period, Rome was monarchical and ruled by a succession of about seven kings. Rome’s first king, according to legend, was a man named Romulus. He and his twin brother Remus are said to have founded Rome in 753 B.C.

In 509 B.C., Rome adopted a republican system of governance in which the state was primarily ruled by two annually representatives called praetors, who were later called consuls.

One of them become a famous general and dictator, Julius Caesar.

The Imperial Period followed. It was characterized by the rise of the Roman Empire and notorious leaders such as Octavian, Rome’s first emperor, who issued in an era of peace, and Nero, who, some scholars believe, was Rome’s cruelest emperor.

.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

Rome’s focus and pride in its military was vital to the civilization’s growth, and this ethos was evident as early as the Regal Period when Rome was only a small village.

Still, Rome slowly conquered and annexed neighboring peoples. This slow and steady expansion eventually lead to the Romans’ domination of the Italian peninsula and the entire Mediterranean Sea, where they conquered the Greeks, Egyptians, and Carthaginians.

Military conquests would later help Rome conquer lands as far away as Britain and Iraq.

.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

This massive scale and growing populous necessitated advancements in Roman engineering. Aqueducts were constructed, which increased the public’s access to water, helped improve public health, and paved the way for Rome’s famed bath houses.

A 50,000 mile long road system was built as well. While made originally for the military, it facilitated the movement of people and ideas throughout the empire.

This transmission of ideas and increased contact with diverse cultures also enabled other aspects of Roman culture to evolve. A key to Rome’s success and longevity was the empire’s inclusion of cultures from the lands they conquered.

.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

From the nearby land of Latium, Rome acquired the Latin language, which became the empire’s official language and the ancestor to Europe’s Romance languages.

Romans also adopted cultural aspects from the ancient state of Etruria, including their religion, alphabet, and the spectacle of gladiator combat.

However, no other civilization influenced the Romans as much as the ancient Greeks.

Their influence is probably most apparent in Rome’s art and architecture. Upper class Romans commissioned paintings and sculptures to imitate Greek art. Greek architectural styles, such as columns, were implemented in Roman structures such as the Pantheon and Colosseum.

.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

One cultural shift in particular that resonated throughout the empire was the rise of Christianity.

Originating in the Middle East, the religion found a strong advocate in Constantine I, the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. He enabled Rome’s transition into a Christian state and encouraged the religion to spread across Europe.

.     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

By the fourth century, after a lifespan of over a millennium, the Roman Empire declined. Factors including political corruption, economic crises, and class conflict led to the empire’s decay from within, while invasions and other military threats caused it to break down from outside.

Rome’s ability to incorporate diverse cultures, dominate rivals, and adapt political systems to the needs of its people are all lessons to be learned for time eternal.

*     *     *     *     *     *     *


Mesopotamia, Assyria, Babylon. The Roman government, politics, culture, society, religion and economy has always stayed the same. True or false?

Hittite, Phrygia, Lydia, Lycia. Roman Civilization only influenced Italy. Is this right or wrong?

Ancient Egypt. During the Regal Period, did presidents govern Rome? During the Republican Period, did emperors rule Rome? During the Imperial Period, was Rome a democracy?

Minoan Civilization. Did Rome grow and expand (entirely) through trade and commerce?. Did Ancient Rome only consist of the Italian peninsula? Was Rome weak, powerful, both, in the middle, it varied?

Ancient Greece. Did Ancient Rome only consist of the Italian peninsula? Did the Roman Empire only consist of the Mediterranean basin?

Athens, Thebes, Sparta. The Romans only built temples and palaces. Is this correct or incorrect?

Mohenjodaro, Harrapan, Indus Valley. Did all parts of the Roman Empire have the same culture and speak the same language, Italian?

Hwang He River, Xia Dynasty. Did British culture greatly influence Rome? What were two very great influences on Rome?

Elam, Persia. How or why did Rome decline and fall?
Roman Republic. We have to (had to) study Ancient Roman history at school. If yes, what did they teach? How was it taught?

Roman Empire. Is Classical history and literature fascinating, interesting, boring, both, in the middle?

Byzantine Empire. There is lot of Roman influence in my city and country. True or false?

Omlecs, Mayas, Aztecs. Is Ancient Rome the same as modern-day Italy? What are some differences?

The Incas. What might happen in the future?

Comments are closed.